Archive for May, 2019

Prostate Cancer Screening Biomarkers: What You Need To Know

May 25, 2019

Andrew Siegel MD  5/25/19

Before we get to the main course, let’s begin with a little appetizer—some trivia about urology, the occupation of yours truly.  There are not many of us around; there are currently 12,700 practicing urologists in the USA, 1 for every 25,000 Americans.  90% of  are male and 10% are female. 57% of urologists are in private practice and the remainder are employed by hospitals or academic medical centers. 40% of urologists have a primary subspecialty, oncology (cancer) being the most common.

Although I have subspecialty training and board certification in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery, I enjoy general urology, treating both male and female adults with a variety of conditions (voiding and sexual dysfunction, incontinence, pelvic organ relaxation, urological cancers, infections, kidney stones, bleeding, vasectomy, etc.), the balance between office and surgical practice and—most importantly– the fact that as urologists, we can help most patients improve their quality and quantity of life.  



plural noun: biomarkers
  1. a measurable substance in an organism whose presence is indicative of some phenomenon such as disease, infection, or environmental exposure.

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was the first prostate cancer biomarker, singularly responsible for revolutionizing the diagnosis and follow-up of prostate cancer. There are several new biomarkers that can help with the decision of whether or not to biopsy the prostate as well as to inform and support prostate cancer management decisions (active surveillance vs. active treatment, the specific means of treatment for early and localized cancer, and when to pursue androgen deprivation therapy).

Prostate health index (PHI): This is a compilation of several different PSA sub-types, including pro-PSA, free PSA and total PSA, into a single score. It can help discriminate between higher and lower grade disease. PHI score coupled with other factors including age, prostate volume, digital rectal examination (DRE) {abnormal DRE vs. normal DRE} and biopsy history (prior prostate biopsy vs. no prior prostate biopsy) are used to help determine the need for biopsy in a patient with suspected prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer antigen (PCA3) urine test: PCA3 is a specific type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that is released in high levels by prostate cancer cells. Its expression is 60-100 times greater in prostate cancer cells than benign prostate cells, which makes this test much more specific for prostate cancer than PSA. The first ounce of urine voided immediately after prostate massage (a vigorous DRE with the intent of milking the prostate) is rich in prostatic fluid and cells and is collected and tested for the quantity of PCA3 genetic material present. Urinary levels of PCA3 are not affected by prostate enlargement or inflammation, as opposed to PSA levels. PCA3 > 25 is suspicious for prostate cancer.

4Kscore test:  4Kscore test measures blood levels of four different prostate-derived proteins: total PSA, free PSA, intact PSA and human kallikrein 2. Levels of these biomarkers are combined with the patient’s age, DRE, and history of prior biopsy. These factors are processed using an algorithm to calculate the risk of finding an aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score 7 or higher) if a prostate biopsy were to be performed. The test can increase the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis, particularly in its most aggressive forms.  It cannot be used if a patient has had a DRE in the previous 4 days, nor can it be used if one has taken finasteride (Proscar) or dutasteride (Avodart) within the previous six months. Additionally, it cannot be used in patients who have undergone any procedure to treat symptomatic prostate enlargement or any invasive urologic procedure in the prior 6 months.

Apifiny test:  This test measures the immune response to prostate cancer, detecting autoantibody proteins in the blood that are produced against prostate cancer cells. It is a risk assessment tool that does not rely on PSA. A score of 1-100 is given: the higher the score, the greater the chance for the presence of prostate cancer.

Biomarker to confirm a negative (benign) biopsy:

ConfirmMDx:  Since a biopsy of the prostate samples only a small volume of the total prostate, it is possible to have benign biopsy results when in fact an underlying cancer was missed.  This particular assay is done on prostate tissue derived from a negative biopsy to help determine its accuracy. It quantitates the chemical status of certain genes to detect abnormal changes associated with the presence of prostate cancer. ConfirmMDx detects a “halo” associated with the presence of cancer at the DNA level, which may be detected in prostate cancer tissue despite a normal microscopic appearance. This test helps identify low risk men who may forego a repeat biopsy and high risk men who would benefit from a repeat biopsy.

Wishing you the best of health,

2014-04-23 20:16:29

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Dr. Andrew Siegel is a physician and urological surgeon who is board-certified in urology as well as in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery.  He is an Assistant Clinical Professor of Surgery at the Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School and is a Castle Connolly Top Doctor New York Metro Area, Inside Jersey Top Doctor and Inside Jersey Top Doctor for Women’s Health. His mission is to “bridge the gap” between the public and the medical community. He is a urologist at New Jersey Urology, the largest urology practice in the United States.

The content of this entry is excerpted from his new book, PROSTATE CANCER 20/20: A Practical Guide to Understanding Management Options for Patients and Their Families

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Video trailer for Prostate Cancer 20/20

Preview of Prostate Cancer 20/20

Andrew Siegel MD Amazon author page

Prostate Cancer 20/20 on Apple iBooks

Dr. Siegel’s other books:

FINDING YOUR OWN FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH: The Essential Guide to Maximizing Health, Wellness, Fitness and Longevity

PROMISCUOUS EATING— Understanding and Ending Our Self-Destructive Relationship with Food

MALE PELVIC FITNESS: Optimizing Sexual and Urinary Health

THE KEGEL FIX: Recharging Female Pelvic, Sexual, and Urinary Health